Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor of the tissues of the prostate gland. There are no specific symptoms, especially in the early stages. Possible disorders (sluggish intermittent urine stream, nocturia, constant urge to urinate, pain in the pelvic region, etc.) are associated with the presence of prostate adenoma or chronic prostatitis in the patient. In the diagnosis of prostate cancer, digital rectal examination of the prostate gland, PSA determination, ultrasound, and biopsy are used. Treatment may include radical approaches (prostatectomy), minimally invasive interventions (HiFu therapy, brachytherapy, cryoablation), external beam radiation therapy, hormone and chemotherapy.
In a number of countries, in the structure of oncological diseases, prostate cancer is second only to lung cancer and stomach cancer in terms of frequency of occurrence in men. In modern urology oncology, the disease is a serious medical problem, since it is often diagnosed only at stages III-IV. This is due to both the long-term asymptomatic development of the tumor and inadequate implementation of measures for early diagnosis. Prostate cancer is more common in men over 60 years of age, but in recent years, there has been a tendency to “rejuvenate” the pathology.
Prostate cancer is a polietiologic disease with unexplained causes. The main risk factor is the age of the man. More than 2/3 of cases of malignant tumors of the prostate gland are over 65 years of age; in 7% of cases, the disease is diagnosed in men under 60 years of age. Race is another predisposing factor: the disease is most common in African Americans and least common in Asians.
Family history is of some importance in etiology. The presence of pathology in a father, brother or other men in the family increases the risk of prostate cancer by 2-10 times. There is an assumption that the likelihood of a neoplasm of this localization in a man increases if the family has relatives with breast cancer.
Other possible risk factors include dietary habits associated with the consumption of large amounts of animal fats, testosterone therapy, and lack of vitamin D. Some studies indicate an increased likelihood of tumors in men who have undergone vasectomy (sterilization). Reduces the potential risks of eating soy products rich in phytoestrogens and isoflavonoids; vitamin E, selenium, carotenoids, low fat diet.
Prostate cancer symptoms
The neoplasm is characterized by a long latent period of development. There are no specific signs of prostate cancer. Symptoms that occur, as a rule, with the presence of concomitant pathology in a man – prostatitis or prostate adenoma. There is an increased frequency of urination with difficulty starting miction; feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder; intermittent and weak urine stream; frequent urge to urinate, problems with urinary retention.
Burning or pain when urinating or ejaculating may occur; hematuria and hemospermia; pain in the perineum, above the pubis or pelvis; back pain caused by hydronephrosis; erectile dysfunction. It is these complaints that often force the patient to seek medical help. Prostate cancer most often becomes an accidental find during an in-depth urological examination.
Continuous dull pain in the spine and ribs, as a rule, indicates metastasis to the bone. In the late stages of prostate cancer, edema of the lower extremities caused by lymphostasis, weight loss, anemia, cachexia may develop.